In 642 AD the Emperor Constans 2 converts to Islam. 14 years after the war with the Sassanids. The relationship between the Rashidun Caliphate, and the Empire of Rum is blossoming.
The Emperor expresses interest in retaking Italy, and conquering the whole Eastern half of Europe. Caliph Umar is absolutely thrilled, and gives his blessing. The idea of bringing Islam into the Eastern half of Europe wasn’t a hard sell. He informs Abu al-A’war that he will be helping the Empire of Rum.
The Rashidun Caliphate also provides the Empire of Rum with gold, food, arrows, and servants. Anything to help in achieving the goal of expanding the Empire of Rum, and the reach of Islam.
This campaign is successful but it isn’t completed until 669 AD. A year after Constans 2 was killed. This is also 8 years after the fall of the Rashidun Caliphate.
The Umayyad caliphate rises in it’s place. The Empire of Rum has a strong relationship with the Umayyads as well. Thanks to it’s past relationship with the Rashidun Caliphate, and it’s mosque building in Eastern Europe.
However some merchants are spreading claims of a quietist sect that venerates the Greek pantheon as angels from Heaven. That were sent to guide the people to Islam. This has caused some diplomatic issues.
But this doesn’t concern the Caliph at this time.
After the period of expansionism the Empire of Rum is stronger, and wealthier than ever. This is the only concern of the Umayyad Caliphate right now. Although this isn’t admitted publicly. It’s discussed privately behind heavily guarded doors.
The influential people of the Caliphate are not convinced that they will be betrayed. But they have to entertain the possibility. Especially now that the heir of Rum has married a woman from the Caliph’s family. The Empire of Rum will eventually have a justified claim to it all.
Dissatisfied members of Umayyad high society may choose to switch allegiances. Which would definitely be useful in the event that they invade.
But at this time the Empire of Rum is only interested in expanding into Central Europe. This chunk of information was gathered by agents of the Caliphate. So that keeps his mind at ease for now.
The Empire of Rum succeeds in it’s campaign to conquer Central Europe in 690AD. After this the Empire ceased it’s expansionist efforts for awhile. What they did instead was fund that quietist sect, and spread propaganda within the Umayyad caliphate.
Eventually leading to the Abbasid revolution. But right as the Abbasids triumph. The armies of Rum come in full force smashing through everything. The people that were concerned about betrayal were right.
But they didn’t anticipate that it would be done through religion, and propaganda. They were preparing for a direct war. The youngest son of the Emperor, and his Umayyad wife becomes the new Caliph. This sixteen year old rules what would be Modern day Iraq, and Kuwait.
The Caliphate is a vassal of the Empire of Rum. Which has now taken control of all former Caliphate territory. With the exception of what would be Iraq, and Kuwait.
From 700AD to 1250AD the Empire of Rum enters a golden age. The quick civil wars , and brief conflicts in East Africa occur. But the Empire is quite stable.
The Quietist sect mentioned earlier is now the 3rd largest group within Islam. With Sunni in the number one slot, and Shia just barely holding onto number two. The Ibadis are number four.
The Empire of Rum, and the Rumite Caliphate have managed to avoid sectarian hatred.
The Mongol Empire became the first great test for the Empire of Rum. The Mongol Empire beat them decisively in the first war. But in the second war the Mongols were pushed East. The Empire of Rum made substantial territorial gains during this time.
The Mongols focused on conquering China, India, and Southeast Asia going forward.
In 1492 the Empire of Rum discovers Alaska.
In the 1600s, the Empire of Rum is in a economic depression. This leads to a civil war between the nobility following the new sect, and the nobility loyal to the Caliph. It ends with the massive empire splitting in two.
The Northern empire of Rum, and the Southern empire of Rum.
The Southern Empire of Rum would begin suffering from sectarian warfare in the 1700s, and right up until 1865. When it broke up into a bunch of smaller states. The Rumite Caliphate made moderate territory gains in the Arabian peninsula. The Rumite Caliphate lasts until the Cold War period.
The Northern Empire of Rum remains mostly intact to this day. Only losing it’s territories in the Americas in the early 1900s. The young United States would pursue actions leading to the Cold War period.
In this timeline the Cold War started in 1990.
The two prominent sects in the United States are Ibadi Islam, and the new sect that helped bring the Umayyads down. The American President FDR was the one to declare war on the Old World, and the old ways.
The Cold War ended in 2021.
The United States & the Northern Empire of Rum maintain neutral but cautious ties.